SAP Press - Account Determination in SAP

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作者 Manish Patel 2016年出版 分类:sap 1645

SAP Press - Account Determination in SAP  官方出品,英文原版!

Contents

1 Overview .................................................................................... 15

1.1 Chart of Accounts ........................................................................ 15

1.1.1 Operating Chart of Accounts ......................................... 16

1.1.2 Country Chart of Accounts ............................................. 17

1.1.3 Group Chart of Accounts ............................................... 18

1.2 General Ledger Account Master ................................................... 20

1.2.1 Account Group .............................................................. 20

1.2.2 P&L Statement Account or Balance Sheet Account ....... 21

1.2.3 Group Account Number ................................................ 21

1.2.4 Reconciliation Account for Account Type ....................... 21

1.2.5 Alternative Account Number ......................................... 22

1.2.6 Open Item Management ............................................... 22

1.2.7 Sort Key ........................................................................ 22

1.2.8 Field Status Group ......................................................... 23

1.2.9 Post Automatically Only ................................................ 23

1.2.10 Tax Category .................................................................. 24

1.2.11 Only Balances in Local Currency .................................... 24

1.2.12 Authorization Group ...................................................... 24

1.3 Account Determination Techniques ............................................. 25

1.3.1 Transaction Key Technique ............................................. 25

1.3.2 Symbolic Account Technique ......................................... 28

1.3.3 Condition Technique ..................................................... 29

1.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 31

1.5 Reference .................................................................................... 32

1.5.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 32

1.5.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 32

2 General Ledger Transactions ..................................................... 35

2.1 Foreign Currency Transactions ...................................................... 35

2.1.1 Open Item General Ledger Accounts ............................. 37

2.1.2 Ending Balance General Ledger Accounts ....................... 38

2.1.3 Other Accounts Relevant to Foreign Currency ................ 39

2.2 Other General Ledger Transactions .............................................. 41

2.2.1 Retained Earnings .......................................................... 41

2.2.2 Intercompany Transactions ............................................ 42

2.2.3 Account Receivable/Accounts Payable Reclassification .... 43

2.2.4 Bad Debt Reserve .......................................................... 45

2.2.5 Clearing Differences for GL Accounts ............................. 46

2.2.6 Subsequent Balance Sheet Adjustments ......................... 47

2.3 Accrual Transactions .................................................................... 49

2.3.1 Accrual Engine ............................................................... 49

2.3.2 Simple Account Determination ...................................... 51

2.3.3 Extended Account Determination .................................. 52

2.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 53

2.5 Reference .................................................................................... 54

2.5.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 54

2.5.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 55

2.5.3 Enhancements ............................................................... 55

3 Accounts Receivable/Accounts Payable Transactions ............... 57

3.1 Reconciliation Accounts ............................................................... 58

3.1.1 Primary Reconciliation Accounts .................................... 58

3.1.2 Alternative Reconciliation Accounts ............................... 59

3.1.3 Special Reconciliation Accounts ..................................... 61

3.2 Basic Accounts Receivable/Accounts Payable Transactions ........... 63

3.2.1 Vendor Discounts .......................................................... 64

3.2.2 Customer Discounts ....................................................... 67

3.2.3 Overpayments and Underpayments ............................... 67

3.2.4 Rounding Differences .................................................... 69

3.2.5 Alternative Payment Currency ........................................ 70

3.2.6 Bank Charges ................................................................. 71

3.2.7 Down Payments ............................................................ 71

3.3 Payment Card Accounts ............................................................... 72

3.3.1 Clearing House Account ................................................ 73

3.3.2 Cash Clearing Account ................................................... 74

3.3.3 Bank Account ................................................................ 75

3.4 Interest Calculation ...................................................................... 75

3.4.1 Account Determination Objects .................................... 76

3.4.2 General Ledger Account Determination ......................... 78

3.5 Summary ..................................................................................... 80

3.6 Reference .................................................................................... 80

3.6.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 80

3.6.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 81

3.6.3 Enhancements ............................................................... 82

4 Tax Transactions ........................................................................ 83

4.1 Account Determination Objects ................................................... 84

4.2 General Ledger Account Determination ....................................... 87

4.2.1 Tax Jurisdiction Code ..................................................... 88

4.2.2 External Tax Systems ...................................................... 89

4.2.3 Non-Taxable Transactions ............................................... 90

4.2.4 Tax Calculation in Sales .................................................. 90

4.2.5 Tax Calculation in Purchasing ......................................... 92

4.3 Other Relevant Information ......................................................... 95

4.3.1 Tax Account Maintenance .............................................. 95

4.3.2 General Ledger Account Attributes ................................ 96

4.4 Withholding Tax .......................................................................... 97

4.4.1 Simple Withholding Tax ................................................. 97

4.4.2 Extended Withholding Tax ............................................. 98

4.5 Summary ..................................................................................... 100

4.6 Reference .................................................................................... 100

4.6.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 100

4.6.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 101

5 Bank Transactions ...................................................................... 103

5.1 House Bank and Other Subaccounts ............................................ 103

5.1.1 House Bank Account ..................................................... 103

5.1.2 Bank Subaccounts by Payment Method ......................... 104

5.2 Account Determination Objects ................................................... 105

5.2.1 Internal Transaction Type ............................................... 106

5.2.2 External Transaction Type .............................................. 107

5.2.3 Interpretation Algorithm ................................................ 108

5.2.4 Posting Rule .................................................................. 108

5.3 General Ledger Account Determination in Banking Processes ..... 109

5.3.1 Electronic Bank Statement ............................................. 109

5.3.2 Manual Bank Statement ................................................ 112

5.3.3 Deposited Check Transactions ....................................... 113

5.3.4 Lockbox Process ............................................................ 113

5.3.5 Payment Request Process .............................................. 114

5.3.6 Cash Journal .................................................................. 116

5.4 Bill of Exchange Transactions ....................................................... 117

5.4.1 Bill of Exchange Receivable Transactions ........................ 117

5.4.2 Bill of Exchange Payable Transactions ............................. 120

5.5 Summary ..................................................................................... 121

5.6 Reference .................................................................................... 121

5.6.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 121

5.6.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 122

6 Asset Transactions ..................................................................... 123

6.1 Account Determination Objects ................................................... 123

6.1.1 Asset Class ..................................................................... 124

6.1.2 Depreciation Area .......................................................... 125

6.1.3 Chart of Depreciation .................................................... 127

6.1.4 Account Determination ................................................. 128

6.1.5 Other Asset Accounting Objects .................................... 129

6.2 General Ledger Account Determination ....................................... 131

6.2.1 Basic Transactions .......................................................... 133

6.2.2 Assets Under Construction Transactions ......................... 136

6.2.3 Other Depreciation Postings .......................................... 137

6.2.4 Asset Revaluation Postings ............................................ 139

6.2.5 Imputed Interest Calculation ......................................... 140

6.2.6 Investment Support Transactions ................................... 140

6.3 Summary ..................................................................................... 143

6.4 Reference .................................................................................... 143

6.4.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 143

6.4.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 144

6.4.3 Enhancements ............................................................... 145

7 Travel Expense Transactions ...................................................... 147

7.1 Account Determination Objects ................................................... 147

7.1.1 Infotypes ....................................................................... 147

7.1.2 Features ........................................................................ 148

7.1.3 Trip Provision Variant ..................................................... 150

7.1.4 TRVCT Feature ............................................................... 151

7.1.5 Personnel Area .............................................................. 152

7.1.6 Employee Trip ................................................................ 153

7.1.7 Expense Type ................................................................. 155

7.1.8 Wage Type ..................................................................... 156

7.1.9 Symbolic Accounts ........................................................ 157

7.1.10 Payroll Area ................................................................... 159

7.2 General Ledger Account Determination ....................................... 159

7.2.1 Reimbursement from Accounts Payable ......................... 160

7.2.2 Reimbursement from Travel Management ...................... 161

7.2.3 Reimbursement from Payroll .......................................... 163

7.2.4 Reimbursement for Corporate Credit Card ..................... 164

7.2.5 Handling Private Expenses ............................................. 165

7.2.6 Trip Advances to Employees .......................................... 166

7.3 Summary ..................................................................................... 166

7.4 Reference .................................................................................... 167

7.4.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 167

7.4.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 167

8 Sales and Purchasing ................................................................. 169

8.1 Sales (Order-to-Cash) ................................................................... 170

8.1.1 Pricing Configuration ..................................................... 170

8.1.2 Technical Objects ........................................................... 172

8.1.3 Business Objects ............................................................ 176

8.1.4 Sales-Relevant Accounts ................................................ 178

8.1.5 Revenue Recognition Accounts ...................................... 180

8.1.6 Accrual Accounts ........................................................... 181

8.1.7 Reconciliation Accounts ................................................ 183

8.2 Purchasing (Procure-to-Pay) ......................................................... 184

8.2.1 Pricing Configuration ..................................................... 184

8.2.2 Technical Objects ........................................................... 186

8.2.3 Business Objects ............................................................ 188

8.2.4 GL Account Determination ............................................ 189

8.3 Summary ..................................................................................... 190

8.4 Reference .................................................................................... 190

8.4.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 191

8.4.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 192

9 Inventory Transactions .............................................................. 193

9.1 Material Valuation ....................................................................... 193

9.1.1 How Materials Are Valuated .......................................... 194

9.1.2 Controlling Object Assignments ..................................... 195

9.2 Account Determination Objects ................................................... 196

9.2.1 Stock Type ..................................................................... 196

9.2.2 Geographical/Manufacturing Unit .................................. 197

9.2.3 Transaction Type ............................................................ 198

9.2.4 Additional Objects ......................................................... 199

9.2.5 Objects for Valuation Areas ........................................... 200

9.2.6 Objects for Material Types ............................................. 201

9.2.7 Objects for Movement Types ......................................... 202

9.2.8 Transaction Keys ............................................................ 202

9.3 General Ledger Account Determination—Procurement ................ 204

9.3.1 Inventory Accounts (BSX) .............................................. 204

9.3.2 GR/IR Clearing Account (WRX) ...................................... 205

9.3.3 Purchasing Tax (VST) ..................................................... 206

9.3.4 Planned and Unplanned Delivery Costs .......................... 206

9.3.5 Price Variance Accounts ................................................. 208

9.3.6 Other Differences in Logistics Invoice Verification .......... 209

9.3.7 Foreign Currency transactions ........................................ 210

9.3.8 Differences in Stock Transfer (AUM) ............................... 210

9.3.9 Consignment Process ..................................................... 211

9.3.10 Subcontracting Process .................................................. 212

9.3.11 Volume Rebate Arrangements (BO1—BO3) ................... 213

9.4 General Ledger Account Determination—Revaluation and

Other Accounts ........................................................................... 214

9.4.1 Revaluation Revenue/Expense (UMB) ............................ 214

9.4.2 Work in Process Revaluation .......................................... 214

9.4.3 Revaluation for Inflation ................................................ 215

9.4.4 Cost Object Hierarchy Settlement .................................. 215

9.4.5 Inventory Offsetting Accounts (GBB) ............................. 216

9.4.6 Account Grouping Codes ............................................... 217

9.5 Summary ..................................................................................... 220

9.6 Reference .................................................................................... 220

9.6.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 220

9.6.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 221

9.6.3 Enhancements ............................................................... 222

9.6.4 Account Modifier Matrix ............................................... 222

10 Payroll Transactions ................................................................... 225

10.1 Account Determination Objects ................................................... 226

10.1.1 Infotype ......................................................................... 226

10.1.2 Feature .......................................................................... 227

10.1.3 Wage Type ..................................................................... 227

10.1.4 Payroll Schema .............................................................. 229

10.1.5 Payroll Components ....................................................... 230

10.1.6 Processing Class ............................................................. 231

10.1.7 Payroll Area ................................................................... 233

10.1.8 Symbolic Accounts ........................................................ 234

10.2 General Ledger Account Determination ....................................... 236

10.2.1 General Ledger Accounts ............................................... 237

10.2.2 Customer/Vendor Accounts ........................................... 238

10.2.3 Technical Accounts ....................................................... 239

10.2.4 Symbolic Account Derivation ......................................... 240

10.3 Other Transactions ....................................................................... 241

10.3.1 Month-End Accruals ...................................................... 241

10.3.2 Bank Account Determination ......................................... 243

10.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 243

10.5 Reference .................................................................................... 244

10.5.1 Configuration Transactions ............................................. 244

10.5.2 Tables and Structures ..................................................... 245

10.6 Conclusion ................................................................................... 246

Appendices ...................................................................................... 247

A Field Status Group ................................................................................ 249

A.1 An Overview ............................................................................... 249

A.2 Field Status Group Configuration ................................................. 252

B Validations and Substitutions ................................................................ 255

B.1 Validations .................................................................................. 255

B.2 Substitutions ............................................................................... 259


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