Customizing Materials Management Processes in SAP ERP (2ed)

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作者 Akash Agrawal 2013年出版 分类:sap 1565

Customizing Materials Management Processes in SAP ERP (2ed) 英文原版,官方出品!

Contents

Acknowledgments ...................................................................................... 19

Preface ........................................................................................................ 21

1 Introduction ............................................................................... 25

1.1 Overview of SAP ERP ................................................................... 25

1.2 Overview of Materials Management ............................................ 29

1.3 SAP System Environment: Development, Quality, and

Production Clients ....................................................................... 30

1.3.1 Client Descriptions .......................................................... 33

1.3.2 Transport Requests .......................................................... 34

1.4 SAP Enhancement Packages ......................................................... 36

1.5 SAP Add-Ons and SAP Preconfigured Systems ............................. 38

1.5.1 SAP Add-Ons .................................................................. 38

1.5.2 SAP Preconfigured Systems (PCS) .................................... 38

1.6 Summary ..................................................................................... 39

2 The SAP Organizational Structure ............................................ 41

2.1 Introduction to Organizational Structures .................................... 41

2.1.1 Client/Company .............................................................. 43

2.1.2 Company Code ................................................................ 43

2.1.3 Plant ............................................................................... 44

2.1.4 Storage Location ............................................................ 44

2.1.5 Purchasing Organization .................................................. 44

2.1.6 Purchasing Group ............................................................ 44

2.2 Business Scenarios and Organizational Structure .......................... 45

2.2.1 Scenario 1: Plant-Specific Purchasing ............................... 45

2.2.2 Scenario 2: Cross-Plant Purchasing .................................. 46

2.2.3 Scenario 3: Cross-Company Code/Corporate

Group-Wide Purchasing .................................................. 47

2.2.4 Scenario 4: Reference Purchasing Organization ............... 48

2.2.5 Scenario 5: Standard Purchasing Organization ................. 49

2.3 Setting Up Organizational Structures in an SAP System ................ 49

2.3.1 Creating Company Codes ................................................ 49

2.3.2 Defining Valuation Levels ................................................ 51

2.3.3 Creating Plants ................................................................ 51

2.3.4 Assigning Plants to Company Codes ................................ 54

2.3.5 Creating Storage Locations for Plants ............................... 55

2.3.6 Creating Purchasing Organizations .................................. 57

2.3.7 Assigning Purchasing Organizations to Company

Codes and Plants ............................................................. 57

2.3.8 Assigning Standard Purchasing Organizations to Plants .... 60

2.3.9 Assigning Purchasing Organizations to Reference

Purchase Organizations ................................................... 60

2.3.10 Creating Purchase Groups ............................................... 61

2.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 62

3 Master Data .............................................................................. 63

3.1 Vendor Master Records ................................................................ 64

3.1.1 Vendor Account Group ................................................... 65

3.1.2 Field Selection ................................................................ 67

3.1.3 Number Interval .............................................................. 69

3.1.4 Vendor Status (One-Time Vendor) ................................... 71

3.1.5 Reconciliation Accounts for Vendor Master Records ........ 72

3.1.6 Partner Schemas .............................................................. 73

3.2 Material Master Records .............................................................. 78

3.2.1 Main Attributes .............................................................. 82

3.2.2 Configuring a New Material Type .................................... 83

3.2.3 Defining a Number Range for a Material Type ................. 86

3.2.4 Defining Field Selections ................................................. 88

3.2.5 Defining Material Groups ............................................... 89

3.3 Purchasing Info Records ............................................................... 90

3.3.1 Structure ......................................................................... 91

3.3.2 Creating an Info Record ................................................... 94

3.3.3 Configuration .................................................................. 95

3.4 Source List ................................................................................... 96

3.4.1 Structure ........................................................................ 96

3.4.2 Creating the Source List ................................................... 97

3.4.3 Configuration .................................................................. 98

3.5 Quota Arrangement ..................................................................... 98

3.5.1 Elements ........................................................................ 99

3.5.2 Master Data and Configuration ....................................... 103

3.6 Catalogs in SAP ERP ..................................................................... 105

3.7 Summary ..................................................................................... 106

4 Procurement Processes .............................................................. 107

4.1 Item Category .............................................................................. 108

4.2 Procure to Pay ............................................................................. 110

4.2.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 111

4.2.2 P2P Documents .............................................................. 111

4.3 Direct Material Procurement ........................................................ 117

4.3.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 117

4.3.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 118

4.3.3 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 119

4.4 Indirect Material Procurement ..................................................... 119

4.4.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 120

4.4.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 123

4.4.3 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 124

4.5 Blanket Purchase Orders for Consumable Materials ...................... 127

4.5.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 128

4.5.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 129

4.5.3 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 130

4.6 Service Procurement .................................................................... 130

4.6.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 131

4.6.2 Service Master Record ..................................................... 131

4.6.3 Documents and Price Conditions in Service

Procurement ................................................................... 132

4.6.4 Process Steps .................................................................. 134

4.6.5 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 136

4.7 Consignment Procurement ........................................................... 141

4.7.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 141

4.7.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 143

4.7.3 Configuration Steps ........................................................ 146

4.8 Subcontract Procurement ............................................................. 147

4.8.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 147

4.8.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 150

4.8.3 Configuration Steps ........................................................ 154

4.8.4 Enhancements in Subcontracting Since SAP ERP

6.0 EHP4 ........................................................................ 156

4.8.5 New Transactions in Subcontracting ................................ 157

4.8.6 Two-Step Stock Transfer and Subcontracting Cockpit ....... 158

4.8.7 Stock Transfer Direct to Subcontractor ............................. 161

4.9 Third-Party Procurement .............................................................. 163

4.9.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 163

4.9.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 164

4.9.3 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 166

4.10 Outline Agreements ..................................................................... 166

4.10.1 Contract Agreements ....................................................... 167

4.10.2 Invoices for Contracts ..................................................... 172

4.10.3 Scheduling Agreements ................................................... 174

4.11 Stock Transfer .............................................................................. 178

4.11.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 178

4.11.2 One-Step Stock Transfer .................................................. 179

4.11.3 Two-Step Stock Transfer .................................................. 181

4.11.4 Stock Transport Orders .................................................... 182

4.11.5 Stock Transfer from One Company Code Plant to

Another Company Code Plant ......................................... 183

4.12 Intercompany Purchases .............................................................. 184

4.12.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 184

4.12.2 Stock Transport Order with Delivery via Shipping ........... 185

4.12.3 Stock Transport Order with Delivery and Billing

Document/Invoice ......................................................... 186

4.12.4 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 187

4.13 Summary ..................................................................................... 191

5 Inventory Management Processes ............................................ 193

5.1 Movement Types ......................................................................... 195

5.1.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 195

5.1.2 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 196

5.2 Unit of Measurement for Goods Movement ................................. 199

5.3 Inbound and Outbound Processes ............................................... 202

5.3.1 Inbound/Outbound Process Definitions ......................... 203

5.3.2 Goods Movement (Transaction MIGO) ............................ 204

5.3.3 Goods Movement with and without Reference ............... 206

5.3.4 Inventory Management Configurations ............................ 207

5.4 Stock Types in Inventory Management ......................................... 212

5.4.1 Standard Stock Types ..................................................... 213

5.4.2 Goods Receipt Blocked Stock .......................................... 216

5.4.3 Special Stock Types ......................................................... 218

5.5 Physical Inventory Management Processes ................................... 220

5.5.1 Process Steps .................................................................. 221

5.5.2 Cycle Counting Method .................................................. 223

5.6 Vendor Return Process ................................................................. 227

5.6.1 Return without Return Purchase Order ............................ 227

5.6.2 Return with Return Purchase Order ................................. 230

5.6.3 Return with Return Purchase Order and Outbound

Delivery .......................................................................... 232

5.7 Cancellation of Material Document .............................................. 234

5.8 Summary ..................................................................................... 236

6 Invoice Verification ................................................................... 237

6.1 Basics of Invoice Verification ........................................................ 239

6.2 PO-Based Invoice Verification ...................................................... 242

6.3 GR-Based Invoice Verification ...................................................... 242

6.4 Invoices for Account-Assigned Purchase Orders ........................... 243

6.4.1 Account Postings ............................................................. 244

6.4.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 245

6.5 Invoices for Blanket Purchase Orders ........................................... 246

6.6 Evaluated Receipt Settlements ..................................................... 247

6.6.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 247

6.6.2 Prerequisites in Master Data ........................................... 248

6.6.3 Process Steps .................................................................. 250

6.7 Invoicing Plans ............................................................................. 252

6.7.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 252

6.7.2 Periodic Invoicing Plan .................................................... 252

6.7.3 Partial Invoicing Plan ...................................................... 253

6.7.4 Customization ................................................................. 254

6.7.5 Process Steps .................................................................. 258

6.8 Subsequent Debit/Credit ............................................................. 259

6.8.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 260

6.8.2 Account Postings ............................................................. 260

6.8.3 Process Steps .................................................................. 262

6.9 Credit Memos and Reversals ........................................................ 262

6.9.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 262

6.9.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 264

6.10 Invoice Verification in Background Processing .............................. 264

6.10.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 265

6.10.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 265

6.11 Invoice Reductions ...................................................................... 267

6.11.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 267

6.11.2 Account Posting .............................................................. 269

6.11.3 Process Steps .................................................................. 269

6.11.4 Customization Steps for Invoices with Reduction ............ 270

6.12 Invoices with Variances ................................................................ 272

6.12.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 272

6.12.2 Account Posting .............................................................. 272

6.12.3 Process Steps .................................................................. 274

6.12.4 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 275

6.13 Taxes in Invoice Verification ......................................................... 276

6.13.1 Entering Tax Data in an Invoice ....................................... 277

6.13.2 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 278

6.14 Discounts in Invoice Verification .................................................. 278

6.14.1 Account Postings ............................................................. 279

6.14.2 Configuration of Gross/Net Posting ................................. 281

6.14.3 Configuration of Payment Terms ...................................... 281

6.15 Invoice Blocking .......................................................................... 282

6.15.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 282

6.15.2 Quantity Variance ........................................................... 283

6.15.3 Price Variance ................................................................. 284

6.15.4 Stochastic Blocking ......................................................... 286

6.15.5 Manual Blocking ............................................................. 288

6.15.6 Tolerances ....................................................................... 289

6.15.7 Releasing Blocked Invoices .............................................. 291

6.16 GR/IR Account Maintenance ........................................................ 293

6.16.1 Account Posting .............................................................. 294

6.16.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 294

6.17 Duplicate Invoice Check .............................................................. 295

6.18 Invoices for POs with Down Payments ......................................... 296

6.18.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 296

6.18.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 297

6.18.3 Activate Down Payment in Purchasing ............................ 304

6.19 Invoices for POs with Retention Money ....................................... 305

6.19.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 305

6.19.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 307

6.19.3 Customizing Steps ........................................................... 309

6.20 Summary ..................................................................................... 312

7 Inventory Valuation .................................................................. 313

7.1 Financial Accounting and Controlling Overview ........................... 313

7.1.1 Financial Accounting ....................................................... 313

7.1.2 Management Accounting ................................................ 315

7.2 Valuation Area ............................................................................. 316

7.3 Valuation Methods: Moving Average Price and Standard Price ..... 318

7.3.1 Moving Average Price “V” ............................................... 319

7.3.2 Standard Price “S” ........................................................... 320

7.3.3 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 321

7.3.4 Process Steps .................................................................. 322

7.4 Material Price Changes ................................................................ 323

7.4.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 323

7.4.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 328

7.4.3 Configuration Steps for Price Changes in the Previous

Period/Year ..................................................................... 328

7.5 Split Valuation ............................................................................. 329

7.5.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 329

7.5.2 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 331

7.5.3 Process Steps .................................................................. 335

7.6 Summary ..................................................................................... 338

8 Key Configurations in Materials Management in SAP .............. 339

8.1 Release Strategy ........................................................................... 340

8.1.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 340

8.1.2 Basic Concepts of Release Strategy .................................. 341

8.1.3 Configuration Steps for Release Procedure without

Classification ................................................................... 343

8.1.4 Configuration Steps for the Release Procedure with

Classification ................................................................... 348

8.1.5 Process Steps .................................................................. 355

8.2 Pricing Procedure ......................................................................... 357

8.2.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 357

8.2.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 358

8.2.3 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 359

8.3 Automatic Account Determination .............................................. 368

8.3.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 368

8.3.2 Configuration with the Automatic Account

Determination Wizard ..................................................... 370

8.3.3 Configuration without the Automatic Account

Determination Wizard ..................................................... 370

8.3.4 Process Steps .................................................................. 376

8.4 Document Type ........................................................................... 379

8.4.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 380

8.4.2 Configuration Steps ........................................................ 381

8.4.3 Process Steps .................................................................. 383

8.5 Version Management ................................................................... 383

8.5.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 384

8.5.2 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 385

8.5.3 Process Steps .................................................................. 389

8.6 Message Determination ............................................................... 389

8.6.1 Business Scenario ............................................................ 390

8.6.2 How Message Determination Works ............................... 391

8.6.3 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 392

8.6.4 Process Steps .................................................................. 397

8.7 Serial Numbers in Purchasing ....................................................... 398

8.7.1 Configuration Steps ......................................................... 400

8.7.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 403

8.8 Public Templates in Purchase Orders and Requisitions ................. 405

8.8.1 Configuration Steps ........................................................ 406

8.8.2 Process Steps .................................................................. 406

8.9 Blocking and Unblocking Purchase Orders ................................... 408

8.9.1 Customizing Steps ........................................................... 408

8.9.2 Process Step .................................................................... 409

8.10 Summary ..................................................................................... 410

9 Material Classification ............................................................... 411

9.1 Introduction to Material Classification ......................................... 411

9.2 Key Terms of the Classification System ......................................... 414

9.3 Configuration Steps ..................................................................... 415

9.3.1 Step 1: Define Characteristics .......................................... 416

9.3.2 Step 2: Define Class ........................................................ 418

9.3.3 Step 3: Assign Objects to Classes ..................................... 419

9.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 420

10 Batch Management ................................................................... 421

10.1 Master Data in Batch Management .............................................. 423

10.1.1 Activate Batch Management in the Material Master ........ 423

10.1.2 Creating and Managing the Batch Master Record ............ 425

10.1.3 Batch Classification ......................................................... 428

10.2 Process Steps ............................................................................... 428

10.2.1 Define Characteristics ...................................................... 429

10.2.2 Define Class .................................................................... 431

10.2.3 Create Material Master ................................................... 432

10.2.4 Create Batch Master ........................................................ 433

10.2.5 Post Goods Receipt ......................................................... 435

10.2.6 Stock Overview ............................................................... 436

10.2.7 Batch Information Cockpit ............................................... 437

10.3 Configuration Steps ..................................................................... 438

10.3.1 Define the Batch Level .................................................... 439

10.3.2 Batch Number Assignment .............................................. 441

10.3.3 Creation of New Batches ................................................. 443

10.3.4 Batch Determination ....................................................... 444

10.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 451

11 Material Requirements Planning .............................................. 453

11.1 Introduction to MRP .................................................................... 454

11.2 Planning Procedures in MRP ........................................................ 456

11.3 Prerequisites ................................................................................ 457

11.3.1 Configuration Settings ..................................................... 457

11.3.2 MRP Groups .................................................................. 460

11.3.3 MRP Data in the Material Master .................................... 462

11.3.4 MRP Profile ..................................................................... 463

11.4 Planning Levels (MRP Areas) ........................................................ 465

11.5 Planning Procedures in Consumption-Based Planning .................. 467

11.5.1 MRP Type ....................................................................... 467

11.5.2 Lot Size Calculation ......................................................... 469

11.5.3 Planning Procedure Type 1: Reorder Point Planning ....... 471

11.5.4 Planning Procedure Type 2: Forecast-Based Planning ...... 475

11.5.5 Forecast Models .............................................................. 477

11.5.6 Planning Procedure Type 3: Time-Phased Planning ......... 480

11.6 Planning Run .............................................................................. 483

11.6.1 Planning File ................................................................... 483

11.6.2 Planning Horizon ............................................................. 485

11.6.3 Control Parameters for the Planning Run ........................ 485

11.6.4 Planning Execution .......................................................... 488

11.7 Planning Evaluations .................................................................... 488

11.7.1 MRP List and Stock/Requirements List ............................ 489

11.7.2 Navigation Profile ........................................................... 491

11.7.3 Exception Messages ........................................................ 492

11.8 Summary ..................................................................................... 493

12 Enhancements in Materials Management ................................ 495

12.1 System Architecture ..................................................................... 495

12.2 Introduction to Development Objects .......................................... 497

12.3 Reports ........................................................................................ 498

12.4 Interface ...................................................................................... 503

12.4.1 Technical Terminology—Synchronous and Asynchronous

Communications ............................................................. 505

12.4.2 Classical SAP Technologies (ABAP) .................................. 506

12.4.3 Example ......................................................................... 512

12.5 Conversion .................................................................................. 512

12.6 Enhancements ............................................................................. 514

12.6.1 BAdIs .............................................................................. 515

12.6.2 Example ......................................................................... 516

12.7 Forms .......................................................................................... 516

12.8 Workflow ..................................................................................... 518

12.9 Summary ..................................................................................... 519

13 Conclusion ................................................................................. 521

Appendices ...................................................................................... 525

A Important Transaction Codes ................................................................. 527

A.1 Material Master and Service Master ............................................. 527

A.2 Vendor Master ............................................................................. 527

A.3 Other Master Records .................................................................. 528

A.4 Inventory Management ................................................................ 528

A.5 Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) ....................................... 529

A.6 Physical Inventory ........................................................................ 530

A.7 Purchasing and Invoicing Transactions .......................................... 530

A.8 ALE/IDoc Transactions ................................................................. 532

B Important Tables ................................................................................... 535

B.1 Material Master Tables ................................................................. 535

B.2 Other Important Tables ................................................................ 535

C BAdIs .................................................................................................... 537

D The Author ............................................................................................ 541

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