Data Modeling in SAP NetWeaver BW

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作者 Frank K.Wolf 2010年出版 分类:sap 1238

Data Modeling in SAP NetWeaver BW 英文原版,官方出品!

Contents

1 Introduction .................................................................. 15

1.1 Target Audience ............................................................. 17

1.2 Structure of the Book ..................................................... 18

1.3 How to Use This Book ................................................... 20

1.4 Acknowledgments ......................................................... 21

2 Basic Principles of Data Modeling ............................... 23

2.1 SAP NetWeaver BW as a Data Warehouse

(DWH) System ............................................................... 24

2.2 Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Data Model ............... 26

2.3 Modeling Methods ........................................................ 27

2.3.1 ER Model .......................................................... 27

2.3.2 ADAPT Model ................................................... 29

2.4 Conceptual Multidimensional Modeling ........................ 33

2.4.1 Dimensions ....................................................... 34

2.4.2 Key Figures ....................................................... 36

2.5 Logical Multidimensional Modeling ............................... 42

2.5.1 Flat Reporting Structure .................................... 42

2.5.2 Star Schema ...................................................... 44

2.5.3 Galaxies ............................................................. 46

2.5.4 Fact Constellation Schema ................................. 47

2.5.5 Snowflake Schema ............................................. 48

2.5.6 BW Star Schema ................................................ 49

2.5.7 Operational Data Store (ODS) ........................... 50

2.6 Physical Multidimensional Modeling .............................. 51

2.7 Conclusion ..................................................................... 51

3 Overview of SAP NetWeaver BW and

SAP BusinessObjects .................................................... 53

3.1 SAP NetWeaver ............................................................. 53

3.1.1 Service Orientation ........................................... 54

3.1.2 Key Areas of SAP NetWeaver ............................ 55

3.2 Overview of SAP NetWeaver BW 7.x .............................. 58

3.2.1 Administration and Metadata Management ...... 60

3.2.2 Overview of Reporting and Analysis

Using SAP NetWeaver BW ................................ 64

3.2.3 BEx Query Designer .......................................... 66

3.2.4 BEx Web Analyzer ............................................. 68

3.2.5 BEx Analyzer ..................................................... 69

3.2.6 BEx WAD .......................................................... 70

3.2.7 BEx Report Designer ......................................... 71

3.2.8 BEx Broadcaster ................................................ 73

3.2.9 SAP NetWeaver Visual Composer ...................... 73

3.3 SAP BusinessObjects ...................................................... 76

3.3.1 Web Intelligence ............................................... 77

3.3.2 Crystal Reports .................................................. 78

3.3.3 Xcelsius ............................................................. 79

3.3.4 SAP BusinessObjects Universes .......................... 80

3.3.5 SAP BusinessObjects Live Office ........................ 81

3.3.6 SAP BusinessObjects Explorer ............................ 81

3.4 Conclusion ..................................................................... 82

4 Structure of a BW Data Model ..................................... 85

4.1 InfoObjects .................................................................... 86

4.1.1 Characteristics ................................................... 88

4.1.2 Key Figures ....................................................... 99

4.1.3 Currencies and Units ......................................... 110

4.1.4 Times ................................................................ 112

4.2 Master Data in SAP NetWeaver BW ............................... 113

4.2.1 Texts ................................................................. 113

4.2.2 Attributes .......................................................... 116

4.2.3 External Hierarchies ........................................... 120

4.3 DSOs ............................................................................. 128

4.3.1 Creating DSOs ................................................... 129

4.3.2 Standard DSO ................................................... 131

4.3.3 Write-Optimized DSO ....................................... 134

4.3.4 DSO for Direct Update ...................................... 135

4.3.5 Summary Comparison of DSOs .......................... 136

4.4 InfoCubes ...................................................................... 137

4.4.1 Physical Data Model .......................................... 138

4.4.2 Modeling an InfoCube ....................................... 139

4.5 Providers for Real-Time Data Access .............................. 141

4.5.1 Direct Access with VirtualProviders ................... 142

4.5.2 RDA .................................................................. 145

4.6 Conclusion ..................................................................... 148

5 Reference Architecture for Data Modeling .................. 151

5.1 LSA ................................................................................ 152

5.1.1 Procedure when Developing a

Customer-Specific LSA ....................................... 153

5.1.2 Layer Model of the Reference Architecture ........ 154

5.1.3 Domains ........................................................... 167

5.1.4 LSA Assistant Building Blocks ............................ 170

5.1.5 LSA and Flexibility When Making Changes ........ 172

5.2 Naming Conventions ..................................................... 175

5.3 Information Integration as a Prerequisite for

Cross-Sectional Evaluations ............................................ 180

5.4 Conclusion ..................................................................... 183

6 Business Content .......................................................... 185

6.1 Basic Principles .............................................................. 186

6.2 Master Data in SAP NetWeaver BW ............................... 190

6.2.1 Customer .......................................................... 191

6.2.2 Material ............................................................ 192

6.2.3 Organizational Characteristics ............................ 193

6.2.4 Accounts ........................................................... 195

6.2.5 Employees ......................................................... 195

6.2.6 Time Characteristics .......................................... 196

6.2.7 Currencies ......................................................... 198

6.3 SAP NetWeaver BW in FI ............................................... 200

6.3.1 G/L Reporting ................................................... 200

6.3.2 Accounts Receivable Reporting ......................... 201

6.3.3 Accounts Payable Reporting .............................. 202

6.3.4 Asset Accounting Reporting .............................. 203

6.3.5 Special Purpose Ledger Reporting ..................... 204

6.3.6 Travel Expense Reporting .................................. 205

6.4 SAP NetWeaver BW in CO ............................................. 205

6.4.1 Cost Center Reporting and Overhead

Cost Reporting .................................................. 206

6.4.2 Product Cost Reporting ..................................... 209

6.4.3 Profitability Analysis Reporting .......................... 210

6.4.4 Profit Center Reporting ..................................... 212

6.5 SAP NetWeaver BW in SD ............................................. 212

6.5.1 Quotation and Order Reporting

(Application 11) ................................................ 217

6.5.2 Delivery Reporting (Application 12) .................. 219

6.5.3 Invoice Reporting (Application 13) .................... 219

6.6 SAP NetWeaver BW in HR ............................................. 220

6.6.1 Personnel Administration Reporting

(0HR_PA*) ......................................................... 220

6.6.2 Time Management Reporting (0HR_PT*) ........... 221

6.6.3 Payroll Reporting (0HR_PY*) ............................. 222

6.7 Classification Data ......................................................... 222

6.8 Activation and Enhancement ......................................... 223

6.8.1 Activating Business Content in SAP ECC ............ 223

6.8.2 Activating Business Content in

SAP NetWeaver BW .......................................... 224

6.8.3 Enhancing a DataSource .................................... 225

6.8.4 Reading Information in the BW Backend ........... 226

6.9 Miscellaneous ................................................................ 229

6.10 Conclusion ..................................................................... 229

7 Modeling the EDW ....................................................... 231

7.1 Reference Architecture for Staging Scenarios .................. 232

7.2 Defining Inbound Interfaces ........................................... 233

7.3 Delta Process ................................................................. 235

7.4 Modeling Data Storage .................................................. 239

7.5 Transformations ............................................................. 241

7.5.1 Important Rule Types ........................................ 244

7.5.2 Start, End, and Expert Routines ......................... 246

7.6 Domain Creation and Central Transformations ............... 248

7.7 Process Chains ............................................................... 250

7.8 Load Control .................................................................. 253

7.9 Master Data ................................................................... 256

7.9.1 Special Features When Loading Master Data ..... 257

7.9.2 Integrating Multiple Sources ............................. 262

7.9.3 Staging Texts ..................................................... 268

7.9.4 Staging Hierarchies ............................................ 270

7.9.5 SAP NetWeaver MDM ..................................... 270

7.10 Data Timeliness and History Management ..................... 271

7.11 Conclusion ..................................................................... 274

8 Data Modeling in the Reporting Layer ......................... 277

8.1 Architecture of the Reporting Layer ............................... 278

8.2 Modeling and Optimization of InfoCubes ...................... 282

8.2.1 Modeling .......................................................... 283

8.2.2 Aggregates ........................................................ 293

8.2.3 Compression ..................................................... 295

8.2.4 Partitioning ....................................................... 297

8.2.5 OLAP Cache ...................................................... 298

8.2.6 SAP NetWeaver BWA ........................................ 299

8.3 Enhanced InfoCube Modeling ........................................ 300

8.3.1 Virtual Key Figures and Characteristics .............. 300

8.3.2 Exception Aggregation ...................................... 304

8.3.3 Restricted and Calculated Key Figures ............... 307

8.4 Virtual Layer .................................................................. 309

8.4.1 MultiProvider in the Virtual Layer ...................... 309

8.4.2 InfoSets in the Virtual Layer .............................. 319

8.5 Universes in SAP BusinessObjects .................................. 324

8.5.1 SAP BusinessObjects Universes on the

Basis of SAP NetWeaver BW ............................. 325

8.5.2 Defining the Universe on a DataProvider

or Query ........................................................... 326

8.5.3 Revising the Universe ........................................ 332

8.6 Conclusion ..................................................................... 336

9 Case Studies ................................................................. 337

9.1 Modeling According to LSA Principles ........................... 337

9.1.1 Introduction of the Application Case ................. 338

9.1.2 Interface Description for the Source System ...... 338

9.1.3 Formation of Layers and Data Storage ............... 340

9.1.4 Domain Formation ............................................ 343

9.1.5 Creating Application Components ..................... 345

9.1.6 Implementing Flat File DataSources ................... 347

9.1.7 Defining Data Storage and InfoSources .............. 348

9.1.8 Setting Up the Data Flow .................................. 349

9.1.9 Implementing Central Transformations with Characteristic Routines ...................................... 351

9.1.10 Creating the Process Chain ................................ 353

9.1.11 Setting Up the Reporting and Virtual Layer ........ 355

9.1.12 Conclusion ........................................................ 364

9.2 Case Study Using Business Content ................................ 365

9.2.1 Processes in Accounts Receivable Accounting .... 366

9.2.2 Aging Grid Analyses .......................................... 371

9.2.3 Payment History ................................................ 375

9.2.4 DSO Determination ........................................... 376

9.2.5 Credit Management .......................................... 383

9.2.6 Dunning History ................................................ 384

9.2.7 Cash Reporting .................................................. 386

9.2.8 Sales Reporting ................................................. 393

9.2.9 Overall View of AR Reporting ............................ 400

9.3 Conclusion ..................................................................... 401

10 Data Modeling for Planning Applications .................... 403

10.1 Planning System and Control System Requirements ....... 404

10.2 Overview of BW Integrated Planning ............................. 407

10.2.1 Components of a Planning Application .............. 408

10.2.2 Diagram of a Planning Application .................... 410

10.2.3 Modeling Alternatives ....................................... 412

10.3 Case Study — Cost Planning on the Cost Center Level..... 414

10.3.1 Initial Situation .................................................. 414

10.3.2 Transferring Actual Data .................................... 415

10.3.3 Modeling the Planning InfoCube ....................... 417

10.3.4 Creating the Integrated Plan/Actual View .......... 417

10.3.5 Defining the Aggregation Level ......................... 419

10.3.6 Structure of an Input Layout .............................. 421

10.3.7 Extension – Data Formatting for

Actual Data Transfer .......................................... 423

10.4 Specific Modeling Issues ................................................ 430

10.4.1 Key Figures and Account Model ........................ 430

10.4.2 Tracking Changes to a Plan ................................ 432

10.4.3 Status Management and Version

Management ..................................................... 435

10.4.4 Retraction ......................................................... 437

10.4.5 Transferring Subplans ........................................ 441

10.5 Conclusion ..................................................................... 444

11 Optimizing Data Retention .......................................... 447

11.1 ILM ............................................................................... 448

11.1.1 Data Lifecycle in SAP NetWeaver BW ................ 449

11.1.2 ILM for InfoCubes and DataStore Objects ......... 451

11.1.3 ILM for Master Data .......................................... 455

11.1.4 ILM for Change Log and Log Data ..................... 455

11.1.5 ILM and LSA ..................................................... 456

11.2 Optimizing the Data Model ........................................... 457

11.2.1 Analyzing the Data Model ................................. 459

11.2.2 Changing the Fact Table .................................... 461

11.2.3 Changing the Dimension Model ........................ 463

11.2.4 Changing DSOs ................................................. 464

11.2.5 Changing InfoObjects ........................................ 465

11.2.6 Remodeling Function ........................................ 467

11.2.7 Activation Programs .......................................... 469

11.3 Conclusion ..................................................................... 469

12 Specific Data Modeling Issues in BW Projects ............ 471

12.1 General Conditions ........................................................ 471

12.2 The BW Functional Specification .................................... 473

12.2.1 Process Description and Business Issues ............ 474

12.2.2 Functional Description of the Transformation

of Characteristics ............................................... 475

12.2.3 Functional Description of the Transformation

of Key Figures ................................................... 476

12.2.4 Data Model in the Functional Specification ....... 477

12.2.5 Reporting/User Interface ................................... 478

12.2.6 Time Aspects of Data Load Processes and Data Retention .......................................................... 479

12.2.7 Authorization .................................................... 481

12.2.8 Validation .......................................................... 484

12.3 Specifications of the IT Department ............................... 484

12.4 Conclusion ..................................................................... 486

13 Summary and Outlook .................................................. 487

Appendices ......................................................................... 493

A Abbreviations .......................................................................... 495

B Transactions ............................................................................ 501

C Programs ................................................................................. 509

D Function Modules and Includes ............................................... 513

D.1 Function Modeuls .......................................................... 513

D.2 Includes ......................................................................... 515

E Tables ...................................................................................... 517

F Delta Processes ....................................................................... 519

G Posting Keys ............................................................................ 521

H Glossary .................................................................................. 527

I Literature ................................................................................ 531

J The Authors ............................................................................ 535

Index ............................................................................................. 536

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