SAP Press - Production Planning with SAP APO

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作者 SAP 2015年出版 分类:sap 2704

SAP Press - Production Planning with SAP APO  官方出品,英文原版!

1 An Overview of Planning with

SAP Supply Chain Management ................................. 21

1.1 SAP Supply Chain Management ..................................... 21

1.2 SAP Advanced Planning & Optimization ........................ 23

1.3 Summary ....................................................................... 27

2 An Overview of Production Planning with SAP ERP and SAP APO-PP/DS ............................ 29

2.1 Production Planning Functions ...................................... 29

2.1.1 Material Requirements Planning ....................... 30

2.1.2 Multilevel Planning .......................................... 33

2.1.3 Material Planning and Capacity Planning .......... 35

2.2 Advanced Production Planning with SAP APO-PP/DS .... 38

2.2.1 Requirements Planning with Exact Times .......... 39

2.2.2 Descriptive Characteristics ................................ 39

2.2.3 Simultaneous Quantity and Capacity Planning ... 40

2.2.4 Production Planning Runs with Several Steps ... 40

2.2.5 Pegging and Control of the Material Flow ........ 41

2.2.6 Determining the Source of Supply and Cost-Based Planning ......................................... 43

2.2.7 Advanced Alert Handling ................................. 45

2.2.8 Advanced Options in Capacity Planning ........... 48

2.2.9 Simple Options for Enhancement with Custom Functions and Heuristics ...................... 50

2.3 Planning in SAP APO and Execution in SAP ERP ............ 52

2.4 Summary ....................................................................... 53

3 The SAP Advanced Planning & Optimization Core Interface .............................................................. 55

3.1 Design of the Core Interface .......................................... 55

3.1.1 Plug-In ............................................................. 56

3.1.2 Connecting the Systems Using Remote Function Calls ................................................... 59

3.1.3 SAP APO-Specific Settings ................................ 63

3.2 The Principle of Master Data Transfer ............................ 69

3.2.1 Initial Transfer of Master Data .......................... 72

3.2.2 Transferring New SAP APO-Relevant Master Data ..................................................... 84

3.2.3 Change Transfer of Master Data ........................ 86

3.3 The Principle of Transaction Data Transfer ..................... 96

3.3.1 Transaction Data in SAP ERP and SAP APO .......................................................... 97

3.3.2 Initial and Change Transfers for Transaction Data .............................................. 98

3.3.3 Transfer of Transaction Data from SAP APO to SAP ERP ........................................ 101

3.4 Core Interface Monitoring .............................................. 104

3.4.1 The Principle of Queued Remote Function Calls ................................................... 105

3.4.2 Tools for Troubleshooting Transfer Errors .......... 108

3.4.3 Eliminating Transfer Errors ................................ 110

3.5 Summary ....................................................................... 112

4 Master Data ................................................................ 113

4.1 Mapping Principle ......................................................... 113

4.2 Locations ....................................................................... 114

4.2.1 Transferring Plants and Distribution Centers ..... 116

4.2.2 Storage Location Material Requirements Planning Areas .................................................. 118

4.2.3 Customers and Vendors .................................... 119

4.2.4 External Procurement Relationships and Transportation Lanes ........................................ 121

4.3 Products ........................................................................ 123

4.3.1 Header Data ..................................................... 125

4.3.2 ATP Settings ..................................................... 125

4.3.3 Requirements Settings ...................................... 126

4.3.4 Lot Size Settings ............................................... 128

4.3.5 Additional Settings ........................................... 129

4.4 Resources ...................................................................... 129

4.4.1 Resources in SAP APO ...................................... 131

4.4.2 SAP APO Resource Data ................................... 132

4.5 Production Data Structures and Production Process Models ............................................................. 132

4.5.1 Production Process Model, Runtime Object,Production Data Structure, and SAP APO Releases ........................................................... 133

4.5.2 Release-Dependent Notes for Runtime Objects or Production Data Structures ............. 134

4.5.3 Structure of the Production Process Model and Production Data Structure .............. 136

4.5.4 Transfer from SAP ERP ..................................... 138

4.6 Mass Changes to SAP APO Master Data ........................ 140

4.7 Summary ....................................................................... 142

5 Basic Functions of Production Planning ..................... 145

5.1 Basic Settings ................................................................ 145

5.1.1 Core Interface Integration ................................ 145

5.1.2 Global Settings ................................................. 146

5.1.3 Planning Procedure .......................................... 148

5.2 Independent Requirements ........................................... 152

5.2.1 Sales Orders ..................................................... 152

5.2.2 Planned Independent Requirements in SAP APO .......................................................... 155

5.2.3 Requirements Strategies ................................... 158

5.2.4 Reducing Planned Independent Requirements ................................................... 164

5.2.5 Descriptive Characteristics ................................ 165

5.3 The Planning Procedure ................................................. 168

5.3.1 Interactive Planning ......................................... 168

5.3.2 Production Planning Run .................................. 171

5.3.3 Capable-to-Match ............................................ 175

5.4 Heuristics ...................................................................... 176

5.4.1 Product Heuristics ............................................ 178

5.4.2 Heuristics for Flow Control ............................... 183

5.4.3 Service Heuristics ............................................. 184

5.5 Example of a Complete Planning Run ............................ 186

5.6 Firming .......................................................................... 188

5.6.1 Manual Firming ................................................ 188

5.6.2 Firming Based on a Firming Period ................... 189

5.7 Net Requirements Calculation and Lot Sizes .................. 192

5.7.1 Net Requirements Calculation .......................... 192

5.7.2 Lot Size Calculation .......................................... 194

5.8 Determining the Source of Supply .................................. 196

5.8.1 Procurement Types ........................................... 196

5.8.2 Automatic Determination of the Supply Source .............................................................. 198

5.8.3 Interactive Sourcing .......................................... 200

5.9 Scheduling ..................................................................... 202

5.9.1 Scheduling for External Procurement ................ 202

5.9.2 Scheduling for In-House Production ................. 203

5.9.3 Planning Strategy .............................................. 205

5.9.4 Finiteness Level ................................................ 211

5.9.5 Alternative Resources ....................................... 214

5.9.6 Scheduled Planned Orders ................................ 215

5.10 Pegging ......................................................................... 216

5.10.1 Dynamic Pegging .............................................. 218

5.10.2 Fixed Pegging ................................................... 220

5.10.3 Safety Stocks in SAP liveCache .......................... 222

5.11 Setup Times in Planning ................................................. 222

5.12 Product Interchangeability ............................................. 225

5.13 Executing Planning in SAP ERP ...................................... 227

5.14 Summary ....................................................................... 228

6 Tools to Evaluate and Process Planning ..................... 231

6.1 Order Views .................................................................. 231

6.1.1 Entering the Product View ................................ 232

6.1.2 Structure of the Product View .......................... 232

6.1.3 Using the Product View .................................... 234

6.1.4 Customizing the Product View .......................... 235

6.2 Product Planning Table .................................................. 236

6.2.1 Entering the Product Planning Table ................. 237

6.2.2 Structure of the Product Planning Table ............ 238

6.2.3 Using the Product Planning Table ..................... 239

6.2.4 Customizing the Product Planning Table ........... 240

6.3 Product Overview .......................................................... 242

6.3.1 Entering the Product Overview ......................... 242

6.3.2 Structure of the Product Overview .................... 243

6.3.3 Using the Product Overview ............................. 244

6.4 Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ............................... 245

6.4.1 Entering the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ................................................. 245

6.4.2 Structure of the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ................................................. 247

6.4.3 Using the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ............................................................... 248

6.4.4 Settings for Detailed Scheduling Strategies ....... 252

6.4.5 Support of Interactive Planning with Detailed Scheduling Heuristics ......................... 261

6.4.6 Customizing the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board ................................................. 263

6.5 Resource Planning Table ................................................ 265

6.5.1 Entering the Resource Planning Table ............... 265

6.5.2 Structure of the Resource Planning Table ......... 265

6.5.3 Using the Resource Planning Table ................... 267

6.5.4 Customizing the Resource Planning Table ......... 267

6.6 PP/DS Optimizer ........................................................... 268

6.6.1 Basics of PP/DS Optimization ........................... 268

6.6.2 Entering the Optimizer ..................................... 269

6.6.3 Structure of the Evaluation View of the Optimizer ......................................................... 270

6.6.4 Parameterization of the Optimizer .................... 271

6.7 Alert Monitor ................................................................ 276

6.7.1 Entering the Alert Monitor ............................... 276

6.7.2 Structure of the Alert Monitor .......................... 277

6.7.3 Using the Alert Monitor ................................... 278

6.7.4 Customizing the Alert Monitor ......................... 279

6.8 Summary ....................................................................... 280

7 Advanced Processes in SAP APO-PP/DS .................... 283

7.1 Finite Planning with the Planning Run ........................... 284

7.1.1 Finite Requirements Planning ........................... 284

7.1.2 Finite Planning as Multistep Procedure ............ 285

7.2 Setup-Optimal Sequencing with the PP/DS Optimizer ... 298

7.2.1 The PP/DS Optimizer as an Interactive Planning Tool ................................................... 299

7.2.2 Sample Process for Interactive Setup Optimization .................................................... 299

7.3 Capable-to-Promise ...................................................... 308

7.3.1 Prerequisites for the Capable-to-Promise Procedure ........................................................ 308

7.3.2 Capable-to-Promise Process ............................. 309

7.4 Planned Material Flow ................................................... 317

7.4.1 Fixed Material Flow Using Pegging Available-to-Promise ........................................ 317

7.4.2 Fixed Material Flow Using the Material Requirements Planning ..................................... 319

7.4.3 Fixed Material Flow to Support the Optimization .................................................... 320

7.4.4 Fixed Material Flow to Support the Capable-to-Promise Procedure ......................... 322

7.5 Multiresource Planning with the Wave Algorithm .......... 323

7.5.1 Prerequisites for Multiresource Planning ........... 323

7.5.2 Multiresource Planning Process ........................ 324

7.5.3 Alternatives to Multiresource Planning ............. 331

7.6 Integration of Variant Configuration ............................... 332

7.6.1 Overview of the Procedures with SCM-APO Integration ....................................... 333

7.6.2 Basic Prerequisites for the Variant Configuration under SCM-APO ......................... 336

7.6.3 Scenario 1: Make-to-Order Production with Variant Configuration without

Characteristics-Based Forecasting ..................... 342

7.6.4 Scenario 2: Make-to-Order Production with Variant Configuration and Characteristics-Based Forecasting ..................... 345

7.7 Material Requirements Planning-Based Detailed Scheduling ..................................................................... 357

7.8 Summary ....................................................................... 360

8 Alternative User Interface for Planning ...................... 361

8.1 Planner’s Home Page ..................................................... 361

8.1.1 Introduction to the Planner’s Home Page ......... 361

8.1.2 Technical Prerequisites and Setup Process ........ 362

8.1.3 Organization and Adjustment ........................... 363

8.1.4 Applications ..................................................... 365

8.2 Enhanced Product Planning and Side Panels .................. 368

8.2.1 Introduction to Enhanced Product Planning ...... 368

8.2.2 Technical Prerequisites and Setup Process ........ 368

8.2.3 Building Blocks of Enhanced Product Planning ... 369

8.2.4 Side Panels ....................................................... 370

8.3 Summary ....................................................................... 374

Appendices ......................................................................... 375

A Transactions and Menu Paths ................................................... 377

A.1 SAP ERP Core Interface ................................................. 377

A.2 SAP ERP Customizing .................................................... 379

A.3 SAP APO-PP/DS Master Data ........................................ 380

A.4 SAP APO-PP/DS Planning .............................................. 383

A.5 SAP APO Monitoring ..................................................... 385

A.6 SAP APO Administration ............................................... 385

A.7 SAP APO Customizing ................................................... 386

B SAP Notes on SAP APO-PP/DS ................................................ 391

B.1 SAP APO-PP/DS in General ........................................... 391

B.2 Master Data in General .................................................. 391

B.3 Production Process Model, Runtime Object, and

Production Data Structure ............................................. 392

B.4 MRP Areas .................................................................... 393

B.5 Product Interchangeability ............................................. 393

B.6 Integration .................................................................... 394

B.7 Production Planning in General ..................................... 394

B.8 Production Planning Run, Heuristics, MRP .................... 395

B.9 Product View and Product Planning Table ..................... 396

B.10 Pegging ......................................................................... 396

B.11 CTP Check, Multilevel ATP Check .................................. 397

B.12 Conversion of Orders ..................................................... 397

B.13 Safety Stock ................................................................... 398

B.14 Characteristic Dependent Planning/Block Planning ........ 398

B.15 Special Planning Processes ............................................. 399

B.16 Detailed Scheduling—Integration .................................. 399

B.17 Detailed Scheduling Planning Board .............................. 399

B.18 Scheduling ..................................................................... 400

B.19 Customer-Specific Heuristics .......................................... 401

B.20 Optimization ................................................................. 401

B.21 Alert Monitor ................................................................ 402

B.22 Rapid Deployment Solutions ......................................... 402

B.23 Performance .................................................................. 402

B.24 SAP APO Deployment Options ...................................... 403

B.25 Planner’s Home Page and Enhanced Product Planning ... 403

C Heuristics ................................................................................. 405

C.1 Heuristics for SAP APO 3.0 ............................................ 405

C.2 New Heuristics Introduced in SAP APO 3.1 ................... 408

C.3 New Heuristics Introduced in SAP SCM 4.0 ................... 410

C.4 New Heuristics Introduced in SAP SCM 4.1 ................... 411

C.5 New Heuristics Introduced in SAP SCM 5.0 ................... 412

C.6 New Heuristics Introduced in SAP SCM 5.1 ................... 414

C.7 New Heuristics Introduced in SAP SCM 7.0 ................... 414

C.8 New Heuristic Introduced in SAP SCM 7.0, EHP1 .......... 415

C.9 New Heuristics Introduced in SAP SCM 7.0, EHP2 ......... 415

D Abbreviations ........................................................................... 417

E The Authors ............................................................................. 419

Index ................................................................................................. 421

APO PP
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